Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a visual condition in which people are unable to see far away objects clearly.
People with myopia will need vision correction in the form of either glasses or contact lenses to be able to see clearly in the distance.
Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a visual condition in which people are unable to see far away objects clearly.1 People with myopia will need vision correction in the form of either glasses or contact lenses to be able to see clearly in the distance.
Higher levels of myopia occur when the length of the eye, the axial length, is too long. The longer the axial length of the eye, the higher the risk for certain ocular diseases such as retinal detachment, myopic maculopathy, cataract and glaucoma.2,3
The onset of myopia typically starts during childhood and progresses throughout the teenage years. While currently there is no cure for myopia, the good news is that there is a range of preventative methods that can effectively manage myopia progression. Some of these methods, such as healthy visual habits, are easy to implement starting right at home! Other methods include prescribed treatment interventions like specialized glasses and/or contact lenses.
Children 19 years of age and younger qualify for annual full eye examinations covered by OHIP. During the full eye examination, your optometrist may detect risk factors for myopia or discover that your child has developed a myopic refractive error. We recommend that your child have a full eye examination prior to a Myopia Management Consultation.
During the Myopia Management Consultation, the optometrist will check your child’s vision, refractive error (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism), axial length (the length of their eye), and perform multiple tests to determine their candidacy for Myopia Management. At Insight Eye Care, we measure the axial length of the eye by using an instrument called MYAH.
Although traditional glasses and contact lenses correct blurry vision, they do not stop the progression of myopia. In other words, your child’s vision can get worse over time without proper management. The goal of Myopia Management is to slow the progression of myopia using treatments that are supported by scientific research and safe for your child.
“The Canadian Association of Optometrists (CAO) recognizes that myopia, and in particular high myopia, is a global public health issue and cannot be considered merely an inconvenience of uncorrected vision. The CAO supports the position of the World Council of Optometry and endorses evidence-based myopia management as a standard of care for all at-risk patients.”
While there is no way to completely stop or reverse myopia progression, there are various treatment options to slow the rate of progression.1
At Insight Eyecare, we view people as inherently unique, so there is no one treatment that fits all. We are excited to offer a range of Myopia Management options to our patients:
At Insight Eye Care, we offer glasses with specialized lenses that are designed to specifically slow down myopia progression. The spectacles are intended for full-time wear and have been proven to slow the progression of myopia.
Atropine is a prescription eye drop that temporarily dilates the pupil and limits accommodation.1 Low doses of atropine have been shown to help reduce the progression of myopia. The drop is compounded at a local pharmacy and one drop is instilled in each eye once per day.
During the Myopia Management Consultation, your optometrist will perform tests that help determine your child’s eligibility for treatment and discuss options for myopia management.
Contact our office to schedule a Myopia Management Consultation.
A Myopia Management Consultation is approximately one hour long. During the assessment, your optometrist will check your child’s vision, The child’s prescription will be (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) as well as additional tests.
The optometrist will measure the length of your child’s eyes from the cornea (front surface) to the retina (the tissue at the back of the eye). They will also perform corneal topography which maps the surface of the eye. The tests are quick, non-invasive and help in the planning and monitoring of your child’s treatment. Define: MYAH
The optometrist will assess the coordination of the eyes (binocular vision) and focusing skills.
Eye drops will be used during the examination that temporarily dilate your child’s pupils and relax the muscles that are responsible for focusing. The child’s prescription will be checked again after the use of these drops to ensure the most accurate results are obtained. The optometrist will also check the health of your child’s eyes.
A specialized camera is used to obtain non-invasive baseline images of your child’s fundus (back of the eye).
The optometrist will discuss options and make a recommendation for the best method for Myopia Management for your child considering their results, their lifestyle, and the best plan for you as a family.
The frequency of follow-up assessments vary depending on the type of treatment recommended and how your child’s eyes are responding to treatment. Once a treatment plan has been successfully established, your child will have an assessment every three to six months. The frequency may be increased if there are modifications required to their plan.
Axial length refers to the length of your child’s eyes from the cornea (front surface) to the retina (the tissue at the back of the eye). It is an important metric in measuring the progression of myopia and determining the effectiveness of your child’s treatment plan. An effective management approach will slow down the rate of axial length elongation.
Corrective laser surgery can be safely performed for patients 18 years or older, who have healthy eyes and have a stable refractive error for at least two years.7 During laser eye surgery, the laser reshapes and removes a precise amount of tissue from your cornea.8
The higher the myopia, the more corneal tissue that needs to be removed. Proper myopia management will reduce the severity of the disease and the strength of the prescription later in life, thus increasing the success for LASIK later on.
Contact lenses are safe for use and have been approved for children. Just like any other medical devices, they require proper handling and care and compliance with the suggested wearing time. The optometrist will guide your child through the handling techniques and ensure that the fit of the contact lens and the vision it provides, are safe for your child.
It was previously thought that the undercorrection of myopia in spectacles would help slow its progression, however more recent research has concluded that undercorrection may actually stimulate and accelerate eye growth due to the blurred vision at various distances.9
Adapting to Myopia Control Spectacles can take one to two weeks. We recommend constant wear and to avoid sports during that period, until your child is comfortable with their vision.
Complications from myopia management can vary greatly in each person. Many children experience very few side-effects at all. Below is a list of potential complications that could occur.
Initial discomfort- comfort may improve as your child adapts to the lenses
Low risk of eye infection, but strong adherence to lens care regimen and remaining highly observant for signs and symptoms are required, due to lenses being worn overnight.11
Peripheral haloes/glare in dim and dark environments
Blurred vision which is expected to subside within 1-2 weeks of wearing the glasses
Peripheral haloes/glare in dim and dark environments
1. Myopia (nearsightedness). American Optometric Association. https://www.aoa.org/healthy-eyes/eye-and-vision-conditions/myopia?sso=y
2 . Gifford KL, Richdale K, Kang P et al. IMI – Clinical Management Guidelines Report. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2019;60:M184-M203.
3. Chamberlain P, Peixoto-de-Matos S, Logan NS et al.- A 3-year Randomized Clinical Trial of MiSight Lenses for Myopia Control. Optometry & Vision Science 2019;96(8):556-567.
4. Morgan IG, Wu PC, Ostrin LA, et al. IMI Risk Factors for Myopia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(5):3. doi: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.5.3.
5. CVI Data on file, 2022. SERE coverage of childhood myopia prescriptions with MiSight® 1 day for 104,810 eyes in Asia (China, Korea) and 116,336 eyes in Europe and USA aged 8-18 years.
6. Lee YC, Wang JH, Chiu CJ. Effect of Orthokeratology on myopia progression: twelve-year results of a retrospective cohort study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017 Dec 8;17(1):243. doi: 10.1186/s12886-017-0639-4. PMID: 29216865; PMCID: PMC5721542.
7. TLC Laser Eye Centers FAQ. https://www.tlcvision.com/lasik-candidate/faqs/
8. MAYO Clinic LASIK Eye Surgery. https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/lasik-eye-surgery/about/pac-20384774
9. Chung, K., Mohidin, N., O’Leary, D. J. Undercorrection of myopia enhances rather than inhibits
myopia progression. Vision research, 2002. 42(22), 2555-2559.
10. Wildsoet CF, Chia A, Cho P et al. IMI – Interventions for Controlling Myopia Onset and Progression Report.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2019;60:M106-M131.
11. Liu, YM and Xie P. The Safety of Orthokeratology – A Systematic Review. Eye Contact Lens 2016. 42(1):